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Common analysis classification and principle in Analytical Chemistry

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Today, we will learn the common analysis classification and principle in analytical chemistry. So, first of all, let's understand what analytical chemistry is.
Analytical chemistry is a subject to obtain the chemical composition, structure information, analytical methods and related theories of substances. The problem it needs to solve is to determine which components are contained in the material, how these components exist in the material, what is the relative content of each component, and how to characterize the chemical structure of substances.
According to the principle of chemical analysis, analytical chemistry can be divided into titration analysis and gravimetric analysis.

1. Titration analysis
According to the concentration and volume of the standard solution consumed by titration and the stoichiometric relationship between the measured substance and the standard solution, the content of the measured substance can be obtained. This analysis is called titration analysis, also known as volumetric analysis.
Four equilibria of solution are used: acid base (ionization) balance, redox balance, complexation (coordination) balance and precipitation dissolution equilibrium. According to the different types of reactions, they can be divided into:
1) Acid base titration method: to measure the acidity and alkalinity of all kinds of acid-base and acid-base content;
2) Redox titration: measure the substances with redox property;
3) Complexometric titration: the content of metal ions was measured;
4) Precipitation titration: Determination of halogen and silver.
Commonly used titration volumetric instruments: including pipette, pipette, acid burette, volumetric flask, beaker, measuring cylinder, conical flask, etc.
2. Gravimetric analysis
Through appropriate methods such as precipitation, volatilization, electrolysis, etc., the component to be tested can be transformed into another pure and fixed chemical compound, which can be separated from other components in the sample, and then its mass is weighed. According to the weight, the content of the component to be measured is calculated. Such an analysis method is called gravimetric analysis. The gravimetric analysis method is suitable for the constant analysis with the content of the components to be measured greater than 1%, which is characterized by high accuracy. Therefore, this method is often used for arbitration analysis, but the operation is troublesome and time-consuming.
The basic operations of gravimetric analysis include sample dissolution, precipitation, filtration, washing, drying and burning.
Analytical chemistry can be divided into chromatographic analysis, mass spectrometry analysis, photochemical analysis, analytical instrument combination technology, optical analysis, thermal analysis and so on.

As for the classification of instrumental analysis, we will divide it into several parts and explain them one by one. That's all for today. If you want to know more about chemical analysis, please click to check the related information of Ribao http://hflbaophychem.com

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